India has a long and fascinating history of mathematics, with a tradition that stretches back over 2,000 years. Throughout this time, Indian mathematicians have made groundbreaking contributions to the field, advancing our understanding of geometry, algebra, trigonometry, and number theory. From ancient scholars like Aryabhata and Brahmagupta to modern-day mathematicians like Srinivasa Ramanujan and C.S. Seshadri, India has produced some of the world’s most brilliant minds in mathematics.

## List of 15 Indian Mathematicians

In this article, we will explore List of 15 Indian Mathematicians who are the most notable Indian mathematicians throughout history, highlighting their major contributions to the field and discussing their lasting impact on mathematics and science as a whole.

### 1. Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of mathematics, especially in the areas of number theory, analysis, and continued fractions. He was born on December 22, 1887, in Erode, Tamil Nadu, India, and died on April 26, 1920, in Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India, at the young age of 32.

Ramanujan had a passion for mathematics from a young age and showed an extraordinary aptitude for it. He was largely self-taught and had no formal education beyond high school. However, his work in mathematics attracted the attention of some of the leading mathematicians of the time, including G.H. Hardy of Cambridge University, who invited Ramanujan to come to England in 1914.

During his time in England, Ramanujan worked closely with Hardy and made many important discoveries, including the Ramanujan prime and the Ramanujan theta function. His work in number theory, including his theory of partitions, revolutionized the field and led to the development of new mathematical concepts and techniques.

Ramanujan’s work was not always well-received, however. Some of his ideas were considered too radical for the time and were not fully understood until years later. Nevertheless, his contributions to mathematics have been widely recognized and continue to be studied and applied today.

Despite his short life and limited formal education, Ramanujan made a profound impact on the field of mathematics. His legacy is celebrated not only in India but also around the world, and he is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century.

### 2. Brahmagupta

Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived from 598 CE to 668 CE in Ujjain, India. He was one of the most prominent mathematicians and astronomers of his time and made significant contributions to the fields of mathematics and astronomy.

Brahmagupta is most famous for his work on algebra and geometry. He wrote the treatise “Brahmasphutasiddhanta,” which is one of the earliest known works on algebra in the world. In this book, he introduced the concept of zero, a fundamental concept in mathematics, and laid out the rules for arithmetic operations involving zero. He also developed a method for solving quadratic equations, known as the Brahmagupta formula.

In addition to his work in algebra, Brahmagupta also made significant contributions to geometry. He developed the formula for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral, which is a quadrilateral whose vertices all lie on a circle. This formula is now known as Brahmagupta’s formula. He also studied the properties of various types of triangles and derived the sine and cosine functions.

Brahmagupta was also an accomplished astronomer. He wrote the “Brahmasphuta-siddhanta,” which is a comprehensive treatise on astronomy. In this book, he provided methods for calculating the positions of the planets and predicted eclipses. He also calculated the length of the solar year and the periods of the planets.

Brahmagupta’s work had a significant influence on the development of mathematics and astronomy in India and beyond. His ideas on zero and algebra were later adopted by Arab mathematicians and eventually spread to Europe. His work on geometry and trigonometry also had a lasting impact on these fields.

### 3. Aryabhata

Aryabhata was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived from approximately 476 CE to 550 CE. He was born in Taregana, a village in present-day Bihar, India, and is considered one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers in the history of India.

Aryabhata is best known for his contributions to the field of mathematics. He wrote the “Aryabhatiya,” a treatise on mathematics that includes important concepts such as the decimal number system, zero as a placeholder, and the use of algebraic equations to solve mathematical problems. He also developed a method for calculating the area of a triangle and the volume of a sphere.

In addition to his work in mathematics, Aryabhata was also an accomplished astronomer. He wrote the “Aryabhatiya” in part to explain his astronomical observations and calculations. He accurately calculated the length of the solar year and the time it takes for the Earth to complete one rotation on its axis. He also suggested that the Earth rotates on its axis, rather than the stars moving around the Earth.

Aryabhata’s work had a significant impact on the development of mathematics and astronomy in India. His ideas and methods were later adopted and expanded upon by other Indian mathematicians and astronomers, as well as by scholars in other parts of the world.

Despite living more than a millennium ago, Aryabhata’s contributions to mathematics and astronomy continue to be studied and appreciated today. He is considered one of the greatest minds in the history of Indian science and is celebrated as a national hero in India. Several educational institutions in India and abroad have been named after him, including the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences in Nainital, India.

### 4. Bhaskara I

Bhaskara I, also known as Bhaskara or Bhaskaracharya I, was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived from approximately 600 CE to 680 CE in the region now known as Maharashtra, India. He was one of the earliest mathematicians to make significant contributions to the fields of mathematics and astronomy in India.

Bhaskara I’s most famous work is the “Mahabhaskariya,” a treatise on mathematics and astronomy. In this book, he introduced a number of mathematical concepts, including the decimal place-value system, which is now widely used around the world. He also derived a method for calculating the cube root of a number, known as the “Bhaskara method.”

In addition to his work in mathematics, Bhaskara I was also an accomplished astronomer. He studied the movements of the planets and stars and developed methods for predicting eclipses. He also calculated the length of the solar year and the length of the lunar month.

Bhaskara I’s work had a significant impact on the development of mathematics and astronomy in India. His ideas and methods were later adopted and expanded upon by other Indian mathematicians and astronomers, including his son, Bhaskara II.

Despite his significant contributions to these fields, relatively little is known about Bhaskara I’s life. Many of his works have been lost over time, and much of what is known about him comes from later works that reference his work.

Overall, Bhaskara I was a pioneering figure in the history of mathematics and astronomy in India. His contributions to these fields continue to be studied and appreciated today.

### 5. Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi was an Indian mathematician, writer, and mental calculator who was born on November 4, 1929, in Bangalore, India, and died on April 21, 2013, in Bangalore at the age of 83. She was known as the “human computer” for her extraordinary ability to perform complex mathematical calculations mentally.

Shakuntala Devi’s talent was first discovered by her father when she was just three years old. He noticed that she had a remarkable ability to perform mental calculations and began to teach her mathematics. By the time she was six, she was able to calculate the cube root of a large number mentally.

Shakuntala Devi became famous for her ability to perform complex mathematical calculations mentally without the use of a calculator or other tools. She once calculated the multiplication of two 13-digit numbers in just 28 seconds, a feat that earned her a place in the Guinness Book of World Records.

In addition to her work as a mental calculator, Shakuntala Devi was also an author and wrote several books on mathematics, including “Figuring: The Joy of Numbers” and “Mathability: Awaken the Math Genius in Your Child.” She also appeared in several television shows and gave lectures on mathematics around the world.

Shakuntala Devi’s contributions to the field of mathematics have been widely recognized, and she received numerous awards and honors throughout her lifetime. In 1988, she was awarded the Ramanujan Mathematical Genius Award, and in 2013, she was posthumously awarded the Padma Shri, one of India’s highest civilian honors.

Overall, Shakuntala Devi was a pioneering figure in the field of mathematics and an inspiration to many. Her remarkable talent and contributions to mathematics continue to be celebrated and studied today.

### 6. Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao

Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao is an Indian-American mathematician and statistician who is known for his contributions to the field of statistics. He was born on September 10, 1920, in India and is currently 102 years old.

Rao’s early work in statistics focused on developing the theory of estimation and hypothesis testing. He introduced the concept of “minimum variance unbiased estimation,” which is now widely used in statistical inference. He also developed the “Cramer-Rao inequality,” which provides a fundamental limit to the accuracy of statistical estimates.

Rao is also known for his work in multivariate analysis, which involves the analysis of data with more than one variable. He developed several statistical techniques for multivariate analysis, including canonical correlation analysis and principal component analysis.

In addition to his contributions to statistics, Rao has also made significant contributions to other fields of science, including genetics and ecology. He developed statistical methods for analyzing genetic data, which have been widely used in the field of population genetics. He also developed models for the growth of ecological populations, which have been used to study the dynamics of ecosystems.

Rao has received numerous awards and honors throughout his career, including the National Medal of Science in 2002, which is the highest scientific honor in the United States. He has also been awarded the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan, two of the highest civilian honors in India.

Rao’s work has had a significant impact on the field of statistics and on the broader scientific community. His contributions have advanced our understanding of statistical theory and have helped to develop practical applications for statistical analysis in a wide range of fields. He continues to be an active researcher and is widely regarded as one of the greatest statisticians of the 20th century.

### 7. Chakravarthi Padmanabhan Ramanujam

Chakravarthi Padmanabhan Ramanujam was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of algebraic geometry. He was born on March 9, 1943, in Chennai, India and passed away on October 27, 1974, in California, USA.

Ramanujam received his undergraduate education at Loyola College, Chennai, and later obtained his Ph.D. from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai. After completing his Ph.D., he spent several years working as a research fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

Ramanujam’s research focused on algebraic geometry, which is the study of the geometric properties of algebraic equations. He made significant contributions to the study of singularities, which are points on a curve or surface where the equations defining the curve or surface do not behave nicely. Ramanujam developed a theory of singularities that has been widely used in algebraic geometry and other fields of mathematics.

Ramanujam was also known for his work in the area of moduli spaces, which are spaces that classify geometric objects such as curves or surfaces. He made important contributions to the study of moduli spaces of curves and surfaces, which have become an important area of research in algebraic geometry.

Despite his relatively short career, Ramanujam was widely regarded as one of the most talented mathematicians of his generation. He received several prestigious awards during his lifetime, including the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize in Mathematics in 1970, which is one of the highest honors in mathematics in India.

Today, Ramanujam’s work continues to be studied and appreciated by mathematicians around the world. His contributions to algebraic geometry and singularity theory have had a significant impact on the field, and his insights continue to inspire new research and discoveries.

### 8. P.C. Mahalanobis

Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, also known as P.C. Mahalanobis, was an Indian scientist and statistician who is best known for his contributions to the development of statistical methods in India. He was born on June 29, 1893, in Kolkata, India and passed away on June 28, 1972.

Mahalanobis is widely regarded as the father of Indian statistics. He played a key role in the establishment of the Indian Statistical Institute in Kolkata in 1931, which became a center for statistical research and education in India. He also served as the institute’s first director, a position he held until 1956.

Mahalanobis made significant contributions to the field of statistics, particularly in the areas of sample survey design and statistical inference. He developed the concept of “Mahalanobis distance,” which is used in multivariate analysis to measure the distance between a point and a distribution. He also developed the “Mahalanobis-Taguchi system,” which is used in quality control to identify and reduce variability in manufacturing processes.

Mahalanobis’s work had a significant impact on the development of India’s economy and social policies. He developed statistical methods for analyzing agricultural data, which helped to improve India’s food production and distribution systems. He also played a key role in the development of India’s national income accounts, which provided a basis for economic planning and development.

Mahalanobis received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Padma Vibhushan, which is one of the highest civilian honors in India. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the International Statistical Institute.

Today, Mahalanobis’s legacy continues to inspire statisticians and researchers in India and around the world. His contributions to the field of statistics and his efforts to promote statistical research and education in India have had a lasting impact on the development of statistical theory and its practical applications.

### 9. S.N. Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose was an Indian physicist who is best known for his work in the field of quantum mechanics. He was born on January 1, 1894, in Kolkata, India and passed away on February 4, 1974.

Bose made significant contributions to the development of quantum statistics, which describes the behavior of particles at the atomic and subatomic level. In 1924, he sent a paper to Albert Einstein that proposed a new way of understanding the behavior of photons, which are the particles that make up light. Bose’s theory, which is now known as Bose-Einstein statistics, showed that photons could behave like particles rather than waves, which was a major breakthrough in the field of quantum mechanics.

Bose’s work on quantum mechanics had a significant impact on the development of physics in the 20th century. It helped to explain the behavior of atoms and subatomic particles, and it led to the development of new technologies such as lasers and transistors.

Bose received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Padma Vibhushan, which is one of the highest civilian honors in India. He was also a Fellow of the Royal Society and a member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences.

Today, Bose’s legacy continues to inspire physicists and researchers around the world. His work on quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics has had a profound impact on our understanding of the physical world, and his insights continue to drive new discoveries and advances in physics.

### 10. Anil Kumar Gain

Anil Kumar Gain is an Indian mathematician who has made significant contributions to the field of algebraic geometry. He was born on May 16, 1955, in Kolkata, India.

Gain earned his PhD in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1981. He has held academic positions at several institutions around the world, including the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai, the University of Paris-Sud, and the University of Warwick.

Gain’s research has focused on the geometry of algebraic varieties, which are geometric objects defined by polynomial equations. He has made important contributions to the study of moduli spaces, which are spaces that parameterize families of algebraic varieties. His work has also explored the connections between algebraic geometry and other areas of mathematics, such as number theory and representation theory.

In addition to his research, Gain has also played an active role in promoting mathematics in India. He has served as the director of the Chennai Mathematical Institute and as the president of the Indian Mathematical Society. He has also been involved in organizing mathematics competitions and workshops for students in India.

Gain has received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize in Mathematical Sciences, which is one of the highest honors for scientists in India. He was also elected as a fellow of the Indian National Science Academy and the National Academy of Sciences, India.

Today, Gain continues to be an active researcher and mentor to young mathematicians in India and around the world. His contributions to the field of algebraic geometry have had a significant impact on our understanding of geometric objects and their properties.

### 11. Mahavira

Mahavira was an ancient Indian philosopher and spiritual leader who founded Jainism, a religion that emphasizes non-violence, self-discipline, and the pursuit of knowledge. He was born in 599 BCE in present-day Bihar, India and is considered one of the 24 Tirthankaras, or spiritual leaders, of the Jain tradition.

Mahavira was born into a wealthy family but renounced his worldly possessions at the age of 30 to become an ascetic. He spent the next 12 years practicing intense meditation and self-discipline, eventually achieving a state of enlightenment known as Kevala Jnana.

After achieving enlightenment, Mahavira began to teach his philosophy to others, attracting a large following of devoted disciples. He traveled throughout India for the next 30 years, preaching his message of non-violence and self-discipline to people of all castes and religions.

Mahavira’s teachings emphasized the importance of ahimsa, or non-violence, as the key to achieving spiritual liberation. He believed that all living beings, including animals and plants, had souls and deserved to be treated with respect and compassion. He also stressed the importance of self-discipline and renunciation of worldly desires as a means of achieving inner peace and spiritual enlightenment.

Mahavira’s teachings had a profound impact on Indian philosophy and religion, and Jainism became one of the major faiths of ancient India. His legacy continues to inspire millions of people around the world today, with followers of Jainism practicing his teachings of non-violence, self-discipline, and compassion for all living beings.

### 12. Ganesh Prasad

Ganesh Prasad (1928-2007) was an Indian mathematician who made important contributions to the fields of algebraic geometry and number theory. He was born on December 11, 1928, in Lahore, which is now in present-day Pakistan.

Prasad completed his PhD in mathematics from the University of Bombay in 1953 and went on to hold academic positions at several institutions in India, including the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the University of Delhi. He also held positions at universities in the United States, including the University of California, Berkeley, and Harvard University.

Prasad’s research focused on algebraic geometry and number theory, with particular attention to the theory of automorphic forms. He made significant contributions to the Langlands program, a far-reaching and influential set of conjectures that connect number theory, algebraic geometry, and representation theory. He also worked on the theory of Shimura varieties, which are important objects in algebraic geometry and number theory.

In addition to his research, Prasad was known for his contributions to mathematics education in India. He helped to establish the School Mathematics Project, which aimed to improve the teaching of mathematics in Indian schools. He was also involved in the development of the National Programme on Mathematical Sciences, which sought to promote research and education in mathematics throughout the country.

Prasad received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Padma Bhushan, one of the highest civilian honors in India. He was also elected as a fellow of the Indian National Science Academy and the Indian Academy of Sciences.

Today, Prasad’s contributions to the fields of algebraic geometry and number theory continue to inspire and inform ongoing research in these areas. His work has had a profound impact on the development of mathematics in India and around the world.

### 13. C.S. Seshadri

C.S. Seshadri (1932-2020) was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to the fields of algebraic geometry and representation theory. He was born on February 18, 1932, in Kumbakonam, Tamil Nadu, India.

Seshadri completed his PhD in mathematics from the University of Bombay in 1955 and went on to hold academic positions at several institutions in India, including the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and the Chennai Mathematical Institute. He also held positions at universities in the United States, including the University of Chicago and Harvard University.

Seshadri’s research focused on algebraic geometry and representation theory, with particular attention to the study of moduli spaces. He made important contributions to the theory of vector bundles on algebraic curves and surfaces, and his work has had a profound impact on the development of algebraic geometry and representation theory.

Seshadri was also known for his contributions to mathematics education in India. He helped to establish the National Board for Higher Mathematics, which aimed to promote research and education in mathematics throughout the country. He also founded the Chennai Mathematical Institute, a leading research institution in India that focuses on mathematics and computer science.

Seshadri received numerous awards and honors for his work, including the Padma Bhushan, one of the highest civilian honors in India, and the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology, India’s most prestigious scientific award. He was also elected as a fellow of the Indian National Science Academy and the Indian Academy of Sciences.

Today, Seshadri’s contributions to algebraic geometry and representation theory continue to inspire and inform ongoing research in these areas. His legacy as a mathematician and educator has had a lasting impact on the development of mathematics in India and around the world.

### 14. Dattathreya Ramchandra Kaprekar

Dattathreya Ramchandra Kaprekar (1905-1986) was an Indian mathematician who made significant contributions to number theory and recreational mathematics. He was born on January 17, 1905, in Devlali, Maharashtra, India.

Kaprekar was largely self-taught in mathematics, and he worked as a schoolteacher for most of his life. Despite his lack of formal training, he made significant contributions to the study of numbers and their properties.

Kaprekar is perhaps best known for his work on a class of numbers known as Kaprekar numbers. These are numbers that can be split into two parts, and when these parts are squared and added together, they yield the original number. For example, the number 45 is a Kaprekar number, because 45^2 = 2025, and 20 + 25 = 45.

Kaprekar also made contributions to other areas of number theory, including the study of palindromic numbers (numbers that read the same forwards and backwards) and the properties of perfect numbers (numbers that are equal to the sum of their divisors).

Kaprekar was known for his love of recreational mathematics and his willingness to share his discoveries with others. He published several papers on number theory in Indian mathematical journals, and his work has inspired generations of mathematicians and recreational math enthusiasts.

In recognition of his contributions to mathematics, Kaprekar was awarded the Padma Shri, one of India’s highest civilian honors, in 1980. Today, he is remembered as a pioneer in the field of recreational mathematics and as one of India’s most beloved mathematicians.

### 15. Radhanath Sikdar

Radhanath Sikdar (1813-1870) was an Indian mathematician and surveyor who is best known for his work in determining the height of the world’s highest peak, Mount Everest. He was born in 1813 in Bengal, India.

Sikdar joined the Great Trigonometric Survey of India in 1831, a project that aimed to measure the entire Indian subcontinent with great precision. In the course of this survey, Sikdar was tasked with measuring the height of Mount Everest, which at the time was known as Peak XV.

Using his mathematical skills, Sikdar was able to calculate the height of Peak XV based on data collected during the survey. His calculations showed that the peak was the highest in the world, surpassing even the Himalayan peak of Kangchenjunga. This was a significant discovery, as it put India on the map as the home of the world’s highest mountain.

Sikdar’s work on Mount Everest earned him recognition and respect within the scientific community. He was awarded the title of “Rai Bahadur” by the British government, and he later served as a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.

In addition to his work on the Great Trigonometric Survey, Sikdar also made contributions to the fields of mathematics and astronomy. He authored several papers on trigonometry and algebra, and he was also involved in the construction of an observatory in Calcutta.

Sikdar passed away in 1870, but his contributions to science and mathematics continue to be remembered and celebrated. Today, his work on Mount Everest is recognized as a significant achievement in the history of geography and cartography.